Citing and referencing
Acknowledging sources clearly and correctly is an important part of academic communication. The sources can be texts, videos/podcasts/vodcasts, oral presentations, reports, posters etc.
Citing and referencing include two parts the citations and the reference list:
Citations also called in-text citations are pieces of information about the source you use; often author(s) and publication year in a parenthesis. The citations points / links to the reference list, which contains detailed information about the source in addition to author and date, e.g. article title, journal title, volume, issue etc.
Example of an in-text citation: "The current evidence base does not allow specific recommendations to be made on how best to incorporate greening into an urban area" (Diana E. Bowler et al, 2010)
Reference list also called cited work list which contains detailed information about the in-text-citation so that the reader is able to find the source. The literature list usually contains only the sources you referred to in the text. You may also wish to have a complete list of all the literature you have found and read in connection with a task or project. It is called for a bibliography.
Example of a reference in a reference list: Diana E. Bowler, Lisette Buyung-Ali, Teri M. Knight, Andrew S. Pullin. 2010. Urban greening to cool towns and cities: A systematic review of the empirical evidence. Landscape and Urban Planning, 97 (3), 147-155, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2010.05.006
Whether it's a quote, some of an author's text rewritten in your own words (a paraphrase) or a summary, you must cite and refer to the source so that whoever reads your text can retrieve the sources you have used at any given time and find out on which background you have made your conclusions.
Two standards of styles
There are two common standards or 'styles' for citing and referencing with innumerable variations:
1. Author & year (e.g. Harvard)
2. Numerical (e.g. Vancouver).
• If you are writing an assignment, check with your supervisor the requirements for the referencing style
• If you are writing an article for a journal, check the author-guidelines on the journal's website.
• Be precise and consistent with how you refer to the sources, so there is no doubt as to how the reference should be read.
• Follow only one set of rules
Why citing and referencing?
• To let the reader know from where you have your information and for the reader to find and check the sources you have used.
• To credit the author whose work you have drawn on
• To avoid being accused of plagiarism; Basically, plagiarism means using someone else's text as your own without making accurate citations.
• So that you are able to find the information again
How to cite and reference?
Whether quoting, paraphrasing or referring, you should refer to the source.
A quote is a precise repetition of the author's words.
1. By a short quote, i.e. max. 3 lines you must sourround the quotation with quotation marks and add the in-text citation whether numbered or by author-date in the end.
2. For a longer quote, the text must be indented and the in-text citation is added in the end.
You also need to cite and reference when you paraphrase. A paraphrase is a rewording of another author's text. I.e. an editing of an author's thoughts and ideas in your own words.
Watch and learn more: Stop Plagiarism (online tutorial)
Literature on citing and referencing:
Pears, R. & Shields, G. (2010) Cite them right: the essential referencing guide. 8th edn. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan (Palgrave study skills). Opstilling i biblioteket A70 CITA.
Dahl, A., Dich, T., Hansen, T. & Olsen, V. (2012). Group-projects in a problem-orientered setting. Transl. by Charles Woolen. Denmark: Biofolia.
Harvard Referencing - Electronic Sources, The Learning Centre, The University of New South Wales